A Project with Paradoxical Goals


Digital Property

Also see Digital Money

MyBank.dom: A feasibility demonstration of the digital rights management system I've been working on for years. Brad Cox.

The Halloween Documents (mirrored from http://www.opensource.org/halloween.html): In the last week of October 1998, a confidential Microsoft memorandum on Redmond's strategy against Linux and Open Source software was leaked to me by a source who shall remain nameless. I annotated this memorandum with explanation and commentary over Halloween Weekend and released it to the national press. Microsoft was forced to acknowledge its authenticity. The press rightly treated it as a major story and covered it with varying degrees of cluefulness. The now-infamous ``Halloween Document'' contained references to a second memorandum specifically on Linux. Within days, copies of the second memo had been forwarded to me from two separate sources. I renamed the first annotated version ``Halloween I'' and set about annotating the second. While not as dramatic or sinister in its implications as its predecessor, Halloween II includes a lot of material at variance with Microsoft's public party line on Linux.

Halloween I:    Open Source Software -- A (New?) Development Methodology

Halloween II:    Linux OS Competitive Analysis: The Next Java VM?

Railroads railroads hauled the tangible goods of the industrial age. Being made of atoms, they were hard to replicate and transport but trivial to buy, sell and own. Railroads naturally concentrated on what was the harder part of the problem and left the trivial problem of buying and selling them to the merchants at each end of the line.

With goods made of bits, we've exactly the opposite problem. Its trivial to transport them but very hard to buy, sell and own them. Overcoming this belief, and the smaller task of actually building and deploying a practical solution, is today just as formidable as building railroads across the continent must have seemed in its day.

--- Brad Cox Superdistribution: Objects as Property on the Electronic Frontier

Scientific American SPECIAL REPORT Trusted Systems Devices that enforce machine-readable rights to use the work of a musician or author may create secure ways to publish over the Internet by Mark Stefik Everyday experience with computers has led many people to believe that anything digital is ripe for copying--computer programs, digital books, newspapers, music and video. Some digital-age pundits have gone so far as to proclaim that the ease of duplicating data heralds an end to copyright: information "wants to be free," they assert. It is impossible to thwart the spread of information, so the argument goes. Anything that can be reduced to bits can be copied.

The Protection of Soft Property Robert Thibadeau, Ph.D. School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University This article provides a treatment of intellectual property protection for all forms of intellectual, informational, and behavioral property. "Every once in a while it makes sense to stand back from current reality, from current concerns about practicality, and take a stab at a principled approach to a subject. The result is often a clearer vision of the way things ought to be. The present utopian view originated in a concern about the legal and technical protection of property in the third wave, the information age, and the age of computers. Being associated with computers for a long time, I have often been chagrined by the lack of basic competence in the legal community and a similar lack of basic competence in the community of companies pandering technology. This chagrin is probably only matched by their chagrin at my lack of basic competence in law and business. I nevertheless believe it might be useful to assert what I see as the way these lawyers and businessmen should be thinking. Again, a utopian leap of trust and faith is sometimes useful as something to think about."

WHAT IS INFORMATION ANYWAY? THE VERY IDEA by William Sheridan. From Principia Informatica Chapter 4. "In trying to formulate an adequate answer to this question, I am reminded of my encounter some years ago with the term "energy". I recall that during high-school physics classes, I tried repeatedly to determine in my own mind just what the essence of energy was. It wasn't until university that I finally came to the realisation that energy was not any one thing in particular, not heat, not radiation, nor gravity, nor motion, but rather a higher-order concept which generalised one aspect of all these aforementioned instances, namely the capacity to perform work. Analogously, I will now argue that information is also best conceived as a higher-order concept, rather than any specific thing, and that we can better understand it by comparing it to the concepts of matter and energy." Also see other articles by this remarkably prolific author.

A NEW STRATEGY FOR SCIENCE? by William Sheridan. "Although I have elsewhere argued that science and technology can be distinguished by their distinctive purposes, on this occasion it is useful to regard both science and technology as part of a single methodology. In a brilliant sociology of science, Bruno Latour calls this unified institution "technoscience" [Science in Action]. In so far as science and technology share some of the same characteristics, I will treat them in a similar context. As part of his social history of the development of the computer, David Bolter argues that dominant technologies often contribute metaphors for human behaviour or social organization [Turing's Man]. In ancient times both the potter's wheel, and the weaver's loom were used to provide analogies of God's shaping of our character, or nature's patterning of our culture. With the rise of the steam engine, society was characterized as an energy consuming device, with the need for a governor to regulate smooth and reliable operations. Now that the computer has displaced the steam engine as the dominant machine, both society and the human brain are referred to as information processors with feedback loops."

The bumpy road of electronic commerce Andrew Odlyzko AT&T Labs - Research amo@research.att.com Preliminary version, August 9, 1996 Abstract: Electronic commerce is widely expected to promote "friction-free" capitalism, with consumers sending software agents to scour the Net for the best deals. Many distribution chains will indeed be simplified and costs substantially reduced. However, we are also likely to see the creation of artificial barriers in electronic commerce, designed by sellers to extract more value from consumers. Frequent flyer mileage plans and the bundling of software into suites are just two examples of the marketing schemes that are likely to proliferate. It appears that there will be much less a la carte selling of individual items than is commonly expected, and more subscription plans. Therefore many current development plans should be redirected. Electronic commerce is likely to be even more exasperating to consumers than current airline pricing, and will be even further removed from the common conception of a "just price." As a result, there are likely to be more attempts to introduce government regulation into electronic commerce.

Electronic commerce: Beyond a simple change of medium June 1996 by Francis Cohen, Fabrice de Comarmond, Pieter Van Der Linden "In the Internet community, where a 100% growth in a year is customary, some are questioning the idea that electronic commerce over the Internet will finally take off and get to a 150 billion dollars industry[IDC/Nielsen]. Indeed, the first results of Internet based electronic commerce services remain dim compared to the skyrocketing growth of the number of Internet users and Web servers. So is it the success of the Web is due only to the inexpensive nature of the information you get from it ? Or is it just the technical solutions are not yet mature for Internet based commerce to be deployed widely and for its potential users to feel secure enough to purchase goods over the Internet ? We will focus on the situation of electronic commerce share in the global market today, and what issues would be raised by it extension tomorrow. Even though forecast is a tricky business in an industry that is barely four years old and whose major players didn't exist two years ago, we tried to get some insights of what could make Internet electronic market successful by addressing a few issues from the French Minitel success. From our experience in this specific telematic business and the results of various online users survey, we will then describe examples of purchases over the Internet illustrating the need for a trusted third intermediary to provide electronic payment as well as value-added service to enable an Internet Electronic Commerce mass market.

Hyperstamps What Are Hyperstamps? Actually, you already know what a stamp is. A Postage Stamp is a kind of stamp. A Postage Cancellation Stamp is a dependent stamp that modifies the meaning of the first stamp. Most people forget that stamps were once widely employed for many commercial and governmental purposes. Stamps are still widely used in establishing Governmental permissions in passports and shipping. Most people don't think about it, but the label on anything you buy is a stamp that signifies its origin. We provide stamps for World Wide Web documents. By applying our stamps to your documents, you notify the world at large as to the fair use of your material. When you click on a stamp, a hyperlink is made to an authoritative page bearing a precise explanation of how that stamp applies to your document. The Copyright stamp above is an example, and you can browse our Hyperstamp Catalog to see the full collection. We have a whole suite of stamps designed to cover many of the common rights and privileges that document owners like to grant or retain. We also provide a Registration Service if you'd like to invent and publish your own stamps.

What's in a Name? (this link no longer works) Three graduate students at the Georgetown University Law School (David Pauker, Stacey Halpern, and Jonathan Agmon) have prepared what is surely the definitive and comprehensive resource covering Internet domain name disputes provided, appropriately enough, in the form of a topic-specific web site. For anybody who has a domain name ending in COM, ORG, GOV, EDU, or NET, this site is a must-read. It illustrates vividly how vulnerable any domain name owner is to loss of a domain name on just 30 days' notice, without any of the usual legal safeguards against loss of a valuable property right.

IBM InfoMarket and Cryptolopes Recent announcement of Infomarket and Cryptolopes.

If Medium Is the Message, the Message Is the Web NY Times, 11-20-95, front page. By John Markoff

Electronic Commerce http://www.financenet.gov

95Nov13 http://www.ljx.com A discussion of "Intellectual Property Rights in the Electronic Age" with Patent and Trademarks Office Commissioner Bruce Lehman is in progress on the Law Journal Extra Web site. A "panel of legal experts" joins Commissioner Lehman in a question-and-answer session on intellectual rights and on the Clinton Administration's White Paper on protecting intellectual property.

95Nov10 Future of Information Commerce (local copy) The next shift in the paradigm is coming. It builds on the personalization of networked information and adds an ingredient that has been missing: advanced technologies for rights management that allow, even encourage, usage-based charging. Forget premium pricing, premium services, premium anything. This will be a world with a very high volume of lower-margin transactions.

InterTrust Information Commerce is a business activity carried out among several parties in which information carries value and is treated as a product. The information may be content, it may be returned usage and marketing data, and it may be representative of financial transactions. In each of these cases the information is valuable and must be kept secure and private. Traditional approaches secure the transmission of that information from one point to another; there are no persistent protections. Protection of all of these components of information commerce for all parties in a transaction value chain is necessary for a robust electronic infrastructure. A prerequisite to such an environment is a cryptographically protected container for packaging information and controls that enforce information rights. This paper describes such a container, called the DigiBox(tm) container. InterTrust Technologies Corporation has submitted initial specifications for the DigiBox container to the ANSI IISP Electronic Publishing Task Force (EPUB) within the User/Content Provider Standards Working Group (WG4). A version of this paper was originally published in the Proceedings for the USENIX 1995 Electronic Commerce Workshop under the title "The DigiBox: A Self-Protecting Container for Electronic Commerce."

4Nov95 Making Microsoft Safe for Capitalism If the software giant has its way, it will soon be in a position to collect a charge for every airline ticket you buy, every credit card purchase you make, every fax you send, every picture you download, every Web site you visit. It's time to draw the line. But where?

12Oct95 Stopping the Altruistic Infringer This is the first of a series of articles discussing recommendations made in the report issued September 5, 1995 by President Clinton's Information Infrastructure Task Force. The report is entitled "Intellectual Property and the National Information Infrastructure," and is commonly referred to as the White Paper (presumably buried in this pile of bureau-speak somewhere; I never found anything by precisely this title).

10Oct95 Jacking in from the "I'll Take Two From Column A" Port by Brock N. Meeks Washington -- A study released by Simba Information, Inc., has left the company scrambling to pay for misappropriated data under the threat of legal action and issuing public apologies to two major universities for lifting copyrighted data without permission. On August 22, Simba issued a press release touting "an important finding" for Maalox-guzzling executives trying to figure out how to make a buck off the Net.

Josh Wolfe's Wash. Monthly piece It's cluttered up with my comments at the top but does include some links to companies and people mentioned there. Feel free to use it in your class or otherwise if it suits your purposes--Josh heartily approves of his work being on the Web. Just thought that the HTML file might be of more interest than the straight ASCII already offered. (David Rothman)

"New Xerox Copier Wreaks Havoc" by Pete Repeat April Fool's Joke: Xerox officials held an emergency press conference Thursday to announce a total recall of the "Reprotron 5000", their recently released three-dimensional copy machine.

Statement Of Principles on Intellectual Property by ALAWON The Association of Research Libraries affirms these intellectual property principles as they apply to librarians, teachers, researchers, and other information mediators and consumers. We join our national leaders in the determination to develop a policy framework for the emerging information infrastructure that strengthens the Constitutional purpose of copyright law to advance science and the useful arts."

MITI Report on International R&D cooperation by International Research and Development Cooperation Committee Industrial Technology Council A summary of a report by the Industrial Technology Council, an advisory body to MITI, about their view on international R&D cooperation, dated June 8, 1994.

Possible Economic Consequences of Digital-Cash by Tatsuo TANAKA "Digital cash will bring us benefits as well as problems. One major benefit of digital cash is its increased efficiency which will open new business opportunities, especially for small businesses. On the other hand, it will bring us four problems: taxation and money laundering, instability of the foreign exchange rate, disturbance of money supply, and the possibility of financial crisis. There is one important attribute of digital cash, however, that overshadows these benefit and problems. It is the transnationality of digital cash, that is, the ability of digital cash to flow freely accross national borders. Every bank can issue it and everybody all over the world can use it. This transnationality is a cause for both benefits and problems, and could have significant repurcussions internationally. From the economic stand point, the most important characteristic of digital cash is its transnationality. If digital cash circulated only within a traditional national border and was controlled under a central monetary authority, there would be no economic implications that would be worth analyzing. In this case, digital cash would be nothing more than a convenient transaction method such as a credit card. However, digital cash is more than that. Its transnationality has the potential to cause conflict between cyberspace and nation states. If digital cash spreads successfully in the 21st century, its history may be written as a record of its battle with nation states."

Transborder Intellectual Property Issues on the Electronic Frontier by Dan Burk; GMU Law School Forthcoming in vol. 5, Stanford Law & Policy Review. Copyright 1994 by Dan L. Burk and the Regents of the Leland Stanford Junior University.

How the Cyberspace Gold Rush Affects Intellectual Property Rights By Irvin Muchnick Information, entertainment and data are rapidly becoming our greatest export. But by treating creators and their work as mere commodities, we risk losing our primacy in this area, as we have in so many others.

Realizing the Information Future, The Internet and Beyond National Research Council provided by Doug Ellmore, Sr., Manager, Internet and Multimedia Publishing, National Academy Press, National Academy of Sciences

Knowbots, Permissions Headers and Contract Law Henry H. Perritt, Jr. Professor of Law Technological Strategies for Protecting Intellectual Property in the Networked Multimedia Environment One of the ways to protect intellectual property on the NREN is through a digital library concept. Under this concept, a work would have attached to it a "permissions header," defining the terms under which the copyright owner makes the work available. The digital library infrastructure, implemented on the NREN, would match request messages from users with the permissions headers. If the request message and the permissions header match, the user would obtain access to the work. This concept encompasses major aspects of electronic contracting, which is already in wide use employing Electronic Data Interchange ("EDI") standards developed by ANSI Committee X12.1

Software Markets--How and When Will the Software Components Industry Develop? by Patricia Seybold Economists are Studying Markets & Other Related Factors [Summary of Taped Interview with Howard Baetjer, Jr., Executive Director, The Agorics Project, Center for the Study of Market Processes, George Mason University]

Project 2000 Vanderbilt University Project 2000 is a five-year sponsored research effort devoted to the scholarly and rigorous investigation of the marketing implications of commercializing hypermedia computer-mediated environments (CMEs) like the World Wide Web and other emerging electronic environments. Project 2000 research objectives are to enrich and stimulate the knowledge base on the role of marketing in new media environments, provide a principal point for the discussion and exchange of these ideas, and impact business practice in this emerging area.

Content.com New York Times article about David Bunnell, founder of Content.com, a web service for bibliophiles.

Document Marking Papers at Research.att.com

Home Video Game Market Overview: July 1995 ABSTRACT: Dismissed for years as an insignificant member of the computer industry, the home video game (HVG) industry has grown at an astounding rate, incorporating a number of leading high technology innovations and making them everyday objects in millions of households. Similarly, the "multimedia home PC" (MHPC) has also commodified many important high technologies, with an especially strong surge into the home market in the last 12 months.

Market Based Solutions to Resource Discovery Andrew Jennings, Simon Cleary, Chong Wai & Senthil Kumar Resource discovery is generally framed in a similar fashion to searching for information in a library catalogue, essentially a utility view of resource discovery. We consider an alternative view, of resource discovery as information trading on a network. This allows for new roles for both users, system developers and advertisers. Through network modelling we show that the introduction of intermediaries in the network can produce significant economies, and we therefore explore new ways of encouraging the growth of intermediaries. We demonstrate three new services for trading information of differing value, from high end services such as stock quotation to low end services such as gossip. The simulations and service demonstrations show that a market based approach is both scalable and feasible.

The Value of Intermediaries in Network Commerce Wai Kiong Chong and Andrew Jennings There is at present a small volume of commerce on networks such as the Internet. We expect that this will grow rapidly over the next year with the availability of mechanisms for the exchange of credit card information. Most of the exchanges will take place via the World Wide Web and will typically involve consumer items rather than large purchases such as business equipment. In this paper we examine the future possibilities for network based commerce with a particular emphasis on the establishment of open markets. Is it possible to create highly efficient international markets based on network commerce? This study examines the place of intermediaries in network commerce and opens up some questions concerning how to foster intermediaries, or at the other extreme how to regulate the number of intermediaries. A key question is how well the existing Web scales to a much larger market. If we project Internet growth rates then we can expect the number of users to double every six months. Our modelling and simulations show that intermediaries can significantly improve efficiency and that we should look seriously at encouraging a growth in the number of intermediaries. The growth in intermediaries can in part alleviate the difficulties of scaling network commerce by several orders of magnitude over the next year or two.

On the Road to Electronic Publishing Andrew Odlyzko AT&T ResearchThis note contains my personal impressions of the evolution of publishing, especially that of scholarly journals. It is an update of the earlier essay [Odl]. It is not a thorough study of electronic publishing, and the reader is referred to [PeekN] and other sources (including those listed in the references) for more complete information. I am presenting only some impressions, comments, and predictions. Stress is placed on the economics of publishing, with extensive discussion of possible developments in electronic commerce, since it is economic pressures that are driving the evolution of scholarly publications.

PRIVACY INTERNATIONALS MONDEX COMPLAINT IS UPHELD ELECTRONIC CASH IS ANYTHING BUT ANONYMOUSJUNE 21, 1996 "After a nine month investigation, government Trading Standards authorities in Britain have confirmed that Mondex electronic cash is not anonymous, as has been consistently claimed by the company. The investigation was sparked by a complaint last year by Privacy International director Simon Davies, who objected to the manner in which the cards had been promoted. Davies argued that the word anonymous, used by Mondex to describe its product, was misleading and incorrect. He said Mondex transactions were logged by the trader and were known to the bank."


FTP Site Shut in Copyright Flap Copyright Warning: FTP Site shut in copyright flap; forwarded by Chuck Spaulding.

The Copyright Grab Wired 4.01, And irrational fear-mongering rant by Pamela Samuelson of ACM of all people. She used to do such good work. Also see response by the Chairman of Simon and Schuster publishers..."Pamela Samuelson's battle cry to take up arms against the Clinton Administration's white paper on intellectual property in cyberspace is missing a key component: a battle ("The Copyright Grab, "Wired 4.0, page 134). Her dire predictions of an end to freedom to browse as we know it are completely unsubstantiated by any recommendation in the white paper itself, or in the pending legislation based upon it. The police state image she conjures -- complete with threats of criminal prosecution for downloading a copyrighted document into the random access memory of a personal computer -- is twisted beyond truth. Perhaps it would have been a better service to Wired readers to just print the text of the white paper than Samuelson's hyped conclusions about it."

Consortium for School Networking Key telecommunications laws and policies are currently being decided in Washington, DC. And, as you know, every state is undertaking statewide plans that include technology planning as part of the Goals 2000 legislation. These state and federal policies and initiatives will potentially have dramatic impact on K-12 classrooms. With your support, CoSN will advocate for improving education through use of networking technology. Your involvement and support of this effort is particularly important.

IITF Information Infrastructure Task Force. See White Paper on Intellectual Property.

U.S. Copyright Office Publications on copyright. Especially see Circular 21.

U.S. Copyright Law The actual text of the law. Also see The Copyright Act

CCC Online Allen W. Dean Copyright Clearance Center 222 Rosewood Drive / Danvers, MA 01923 USA Tel: +1 508-750-8400 Fax: (508) 750-4470 Email: adean@copyright.com URL: http://www.copyright.com/ PS: Brad, you may want to take a look at what we are now doing on this site. Our Academic Permissions Service (APS) Online allows you to create dynamic web pages that change depending on the responses that we send back and forth over time. We are beginning to do some serious business over the web through both this service and the Transactional Reporting Service (for document supply, ILL requests, etc.).

10 Big Myths About Copyright Explained By Brad Templeton An Attempt To Answer Common Myths About Copyright Seen On The Net And Cover Issues Related To Copyright And Usenet Posting. Original at http://www.clarinet.com/brad/copymyths.html

Economy of Ideas by John Perry Barlow A framework for rethinking patents and copyrights in the Digital Age; Everything you know about intellectual property is wrong.

Why Software Ownership is bad for Society by Richard Stallman Talk given by Richard Stallman at Univ. of Texas, Feb. 1987. Square brackets contain comments and clarifications that were not said in the original talk.

Why Software Should Be Free by Richard Stallman The existence of software inevitably raises the question of how decisions about its use should be made. For example, suppose one individual who has a copy of a program meets another who would like a copy. It is possible for them to copy the program; who should decide whether this is done? The individuals involved? Or another party, called the "owner"?

10 Big Myths about copyright explained By Brad Templeton 1) "If it doesn't have a copyright notice, it's not copyrighted." This was true in the past, but today almost all major nations follow the Berne copyright convention. For example, in the USA, almost everything created privately after April 1, 1989 is copyrighted and protected whether it has a notice or not. The default you should assume for other people's works is that they are copyrighted and may not be copied unless you *know* otherwise. There are some old works that lost protection without notice, but frankly you should not risk it unless you know for sure.

Position Paper on Electronic Commerce Freelance Writers and Online Commerce A Position Paper of the National Writers Union May 30, 1995 Table of Contents Introduction What is online commerce? Online transaction systems How it would work for writers An example of an online transaction system at work What do writers need from an online commerce system? Online commerce and online publishers Collecting royalties from commercial online databases Conclusion E-mail and web addresses for companies mentioned Go to Press Release

Ala Summarizes Disagreements With "Green Paper" On Copyright by American Library Association ALA and several other library and education groups have expressed concern about press and other reports that the recommendations in the final version of the "Green Paper" by the Administration's Working Group on Intellectual Property Rights will not be significantly different from the preliminary version released in July 1994.

Copyright Basics by the U.S. Copyright Office; Last update 6/21/93 This circular attempts to answer some of the questions that are frequently asked about copyright.

Reader Response to "Copyright Crisis" Last Update: October 10, 1994

Intellectual Property and the National Information Infrastructure by Bruce A. Lehman and Ronald H. Brown A Preliminary Draft of the Report of the Working Group on Intellectual Property Rights. With draft version and Cover Page

Heads up! The knowledge monopolists are at it again by Jim Warren It appears that the administration, to avoid controversy among "important" people, is about to give away much of the benefit and value of the net and of public access to information to intellectual-property monopolists and their big-bucks Washington lobbyists.

Novell Versus Billings by Greg Ahronian The Patent and Trademark Office has decided to reexamine its third software patent, in this base a patent on server-based network computing awarded to Roger Billings seven years, a patent with which he is now suing Novell for over $200 million in damages. This September, the case was to come to trial in San Francisco, but has been put on hold until the reexamination is done.

RISKS of guessing at Fair Use by Mich Kabay In an article by Andrew Lawler in _Science_ magazine (94.11.25; 266:1315) entitled "Court says no to copying articles," we read of a recent case which may affect anyone who collects news, newspaper, magazine and journal articles:

Legally Speaking: The NII Intellectual Property Report by Pamela Samuelson This paper will be published in the December 1994 issue of Communications of the ACM. Copyright 1994, Communications of the ACM.






Xanadu/Ted Nelson

Where it all started.

Interesting Times The Ted Nelson News Letter

From Ted Nelson Angry letter in response to Wired article, with response by article's author.

Wolfsbane by Ted Nelson With more on the above topic.

The Project by Ted Nelson

Netscape Secure Server (SSL)

Of course, as the U.S. State Deparment will tell you, nobody knows anything about cryptography except us Americans, so we safe if they just forbid exporting it.

SSL Challenge by Hal Finney. Here is a challenge to try breaking SSL using the default exportable encryption mode, 40-bit RC4. It consists of a record of a submission of form data which was sent to Netscape's electronic shop order form in "secure" mode. However the data I entered in the form is not my real name and address. The challenge is to break the encryption and recover the name and address info I entered in the form and sent securely to Netscape.

SSL Challenge Broken by Damien.Doligez@inria.fr This is to announce the solution of the SSL challenge posted by Hal Finney on July 17, 1995. The 40-bit secret part of the key is 7e f0 96 1f a6. I found it by a brute force search on a network of about 120 workstations and a few parallel computers at INRIA, Ecole Polytechnique, and ENS. The key was found after scanning a little more than half the key space in 8 days. You can find a copy of this text at http://pauillac.inria.fr/%7Edoligez/ssl/announce.txt and http://pauillac.inria.fr/%7Edoligez/ssl/press-conf.html

French Hacker Cracks Netscape Code, Shrugging Off U.S. Encryption Scheme By Jared Sandberg The Wall Street Journal, August 17, 1995, p. B3. A computer hacker in France has breached the encryption scheme of new Netscape software for navigating the Internet, the global computer network. The breach underscores flaws in U.S. rules restricting the export of more-sophisticated security measures.


Folio Corporation Folio Corporation Business Relationships Folio Corporation Business Partners Folio Corporation International Business Partners FIT (Folio Infobase Technology) in the Real World Other web sites using the Folio Infobase Web Server Folio User Group listing Places to go for FIT related material.

Folio Home page Folio Corp. 2155 N. Freedom Blvd. Provo, UT 84604, U.S.A. Tel: +1 801 344 3700 Folio VIEWS is popular software for creating electronic publications on CD-ROM. It includes WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) tools for displaying the text in a variety of formats and user-defined styles. In addition to the standard "personalization" tools like bookmarks, Folio VIEWS provides end users with "highlighters" of user-definable fonts, colors, etc. as another tool for rapid visual identification. VIEWS includes functionality for multiuser editing and a full set of security features. Folio also provides a read-only end-user tool called VIEWER. It supports Microsoft's Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) technology to link to multimedia objects like graphics and video. Some of the most popular of these are news wires, which with the right software (such as Folio VIEWS or IA Systems' ITDS) can automatically analyze and select the news the subscriber would find interesting Infodata, as a reseller, offers Folio's VIEWS as a PC-based text management product to address distributed processed or LAN-based applications. Folio Corp.'s VIEWS is available from Infodata. This option is a desktop facility for local text search and manipulation. It features fast indexing and compression, hypertext linking, a cut-and-paste facility, and feeds to other word processors or other desktop tools.

Association for Computing Machinery

The ACM Electronic Publishing Plan by Peter J. Denning Chair, Publications Board Bernard Rous Deputy Director, ACM Publications I am pleased to enclose a copy of the ACM's electronic publishing plan, which contains our vision about the future of scientific publishing and our program to achieve it. Our interim answers to the policy questions raised in this plan are recorded in two separate documents, the ACM Copyright Policy and ACM Author's Guide to the Copyright Policy

ACM Code of Ethics by ACM The Association of Computing Machinery code of ethics

Special Report on Cryptography The Association for Computing Machinery Underlying the debate on EES are significant issues of conflicting public needs.